Scientists warn that components of southern Africa already hit by report droughts now face one other potential meals disaster as a result of the invasion of a crop-eating pest, often known as the “fall armyworm”.
World consultants are assembly within the Zimbabwean capital Harare to provide you with a plan to fight it.
What’s the fall armyworm?
The identify is a bit deceptive. It isn’t truly a worm, however a hungry caterpillar that eats crops earlier than turning right into a moth.
It’s a new pest, to not be confused with the equally named “African armyworm”, which has been current within the area for a few years.
The place did it come from?
It’s native to the Americas, however consultants usually are not certain the way it reached Africa.
One idea is that the eggs or the caterpillars themselves hitched a journey in some imported produce, and even made it on board industrial flights.
Why is it such a menace to farming?
- It is rather hungry (and never choosy) – This pest targets maize (corn) and different cereal crops, like its African namesake, nevertheless it additionally assaults cotton, soybean, potato and tobacco crops. When it does invade, as much as three-quarters of the crop might be destroyed.
- Unknown enemy – Governments, communities and farmers don’t have any earlier expertise of coping with the brand new pest, which can be even tougher to take care of than its native equal.
- It’s quick – Based on the UN’s Meals and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), it has taken solely eight weeks for the pest to unfold to the six southern African nations the place there are suspected infestations.
- It travels far and broad – The caterpillar stage does the injury however “it is the grownup moth that migrates lengthy distances and that is the way it’s managed to get spherical Africa,” says Professor Ken Wilson, an professional on armyworms.
- It isn’t simply focusing on any previous crop – Maize is the first meals staple in most of the areas the place the pest has been recognized.
- It’s arduous to seek out – The autumn armyworm burrows proper into the stem of maize vegetation, concealing itself from view and stopping farmers from recognizing the issue early.
- Dangerous timing – It comes after two years of report droughts, which have already affected greater than 40 million individuals within the area, making 15% much less meals obtainable, according to the UN.
The place is it?
South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, Namibia and Mozambique are the chief suspects amongst southern African nations, in line with the FAO.
The presence of fall armyworm in Africa was first reported on the island nation of Sao Tome and Principe in January 2016, it says.
Chimenya Phiri, Malawian farmer:
“These military worms assault the maize leaves, the flower and even bore into the stalk. And since they dig into the stem of the plant, it’s tough to note them. It’s only on shut inspection that you simply realise nearly your complete plant has been destroyed”
Different analysis teams have additionally reported it in components of West Africa, together with Nigeria and Ghana.
However the governments of Zimbabwe and South Africa are the one ones to have publicly confirmed that they’ve an issue with this particular pest.
How a lot injury has already been performed?
We do not know precisely, as a result of many affected nations haven’t supplied knowledge but.
Discovering out the variety of hectares affected and the depth of the pest is likely one of the fundamental goals of the emergency summit in Zimbabwe, the UN says.
South Africa, the area’s largest maize producer, has confirmed the destruction of crops from the pest in six completely different provinces.
The Zambian authorities has stated that 130,000 hectares (321,236 acres) of land have been affected, with the prime suspect the autumn armyworm.
What might be performed to cease it?
Pesticides. Chemical substances can be utilized to take care of the pest in its early phases, however after that it turns into a lot tougher, and a few populations of fall armyworm have developed resistance, in line with consultants.
Different approaches contain digging trenches, using pure predators, like birds, to eat the worms and even burning the crops, in line with David Phiri, the senior FAO official in southern Africa.
Zambia, regarded as one of many first locations hit by the outbreak, used military planes to spray affected areas with pesticides, which has enabled some crops to get better, an official on the nationwide catastrophe company advised the BBC.
The warning from the FAO is a bleak one, suggesting that issues will in all probability worsen earlier than they get higher.
“It has simply began – even these nations not at present affected ought to put together themselves for attainable infestations,” Mr Phiri advised the BBC.
Scientific institutes have additionally raised the alarm, describing the pest as a significant menace to meals safety and agricultural commerce within the area.
Nevertheless, if there’s a “co-ordinated method” from nations throughout the area, then that is the place the answer would possibly lie, Mr Phiri says.
“We can’t eradicate it, however we are able to discover methods of managing it.”